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|Bordering Hong Kong and Macau, Shenzhen is located in southern Guangdong province on the eastern shore of the Pearl River Delta where the rivers Zhujiang and Sanjiaozhou converge to drain into the South China Sea. In the 1980s Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping declared Shenzhen, meaning 'Deep Drain', a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) and developed the fishing village into a metropolitan center for foreign commercial investment. It is China's second large economic zone and also one of China's most important trade and port cities, hence, it is often referred to as the ''Bright Pearl of South China.''
The name Shenzhen first appeared in historical texts during the Ming Dynasty and was not officially a city until 1979. The city gained Special Economic Status in 1980, which allowed it economic liberties such as tax incentives, relaxed policies regulating international trade, and opportunities for international joint venture enterprises. The city is divided into three administrative zones: SEZ, the business and financial center, Shenzhen City, and Shenzhen County. Its proximity to Hong Kong and Macau makes Shenzhen a natural domestic and international transportation hub serviced by air, road, and water. All visitors that come to the SEZ must undergo an ID check when crossing the city border.
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